Appendix to the report titled "A Comparison of Risk Assessment Instruments in Juvenile Justice".
Since the 1970s, those working in the field of juvenile justice have sought ways to classify offenders by their likelihood of future delinquency—primarily through the use of actuarial risk assessments. As more such assessment instruments were developed and put into use, some juvenile justice practitioners and researchers began raising concerns about the classification and predictive validity of several of these risk assessments. In response to those concerns, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention funded NCCD to conduct a study of eight risk assessments in 10 jurisdictions across the United States. NCCD researchers, in consultation with an advisory board of juvenile justice researchers and developers of commercial juvenile justice risk assessment systems included in the study, compared the assessments’ predictive validity, reliability, equity, and costs.
In 2008, the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services Bureau of Elderly and Adult Services (BEAS) and the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD), with funding provided by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), collaborated to construct an actuarial risk assessment to classify BEAS clients by their likelihood of elder maltreatment and/or self-neglect in the future. Studies in adult and juvenile corrections and child welfare have demonstrated that active service intervention with high risk clients can reduce criminal recidivism and the recurrence of child maltreatment (Wagner, Hull, & Luttrell, 1995; Eisenberg & Markley, 1987; Baird, Heinz, & Bemus, 1981). The purpose of this research was to examine a large set of individual and referral characteristics, determine their relationship to subsequent elder self-neglect and/or maltreatment, and develop an actuarial risk assessment for BEAS workers to complete at the end of an investigation to inform their case decisions. BEAS and NCCD pursued development of an actuarial risk assessment with the goal of reducing subsequent maltreatment of elderly and vulnerable adults who have been involved in an incident of self-neglect or maltreatment by another person (i.e., abuse, exploitation, or neglect). The actuarial risk assessment described in this report provides BEAS workers with a method to more accurately identify high risk clients and therefore more effectively target service interventions in an effort to protect their most vulnerable clients.
An evaluation of the Avon Park Youth Academy and Street Smart Program (APYA/SS) program. The evaluation demonstrated that the program has the potential to join the modest but growing list of evidence-based practices in juvenile corrections. However, NCCD evaluators recommended that program modifications and further research may be needed for APYA/SS to fully achieve the status of an evidence-based practice.
In June of 2001 the National Council on Crime and Delinquency, in cooperation with the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, convened a symposium to assess the current state of research, exchange information, and establish a tentative agenda for action regarding the quality of life and unmet needs of the API population in the United States. Scholars, activists, community-based and non-profit organizations, educators, law and policy experts, and foundations were all present for this conversation. This report includes many of the data and concepts presented and discusses recurring issues, such as the myth of the model minority, documenting the diversity of API communities, and historical issues which affect federal policies and legislation.
For the past thirty years, activists in the domestic violence movement have pushed the criminal justice system to actively respond to intimate partner violence. This study is an attempt to contribute to the growing body of knowledge about who is at most risk of committing future domestic violence once an incident has been recognized by the police. The work presented here is a result of collaboration among the Berkeley, California, Police Department, the East Bay Public Safety Corridor Partnership, and the National Council on Crime and Delinquency.